CHOLESTEROL & STEROID HORMONES by Professor Fink
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Klug; Steroid hormone receptors: Steroid hormones SHs are lipophilic molecules derived from cholesterol and synthesized in the adrenal cortex glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and adrenal androgens , the testes testicular androgens, oestrogen , and the ovary and placenta oestrogens and progestagens or progestins.
SHs reach their target cells via the blood, where they are bound to carrier proteins, and because of their lipophilic nature pass the cell membrane by simple diffusion. Within the target cells SHs bind to steroid hormone receptors SHRs , the key mediators of SH action, which are complexed to chaperones, e.
SHRs are intracellular transcription factors that can be activated, among other possibilities, by the specific and high affinity binding of ligand to exert positive or negative effects on the expression of target genes.
Binding of agonistic or antagonistic ligands leads to different allosteric changes of SHRs making them competent to exert positive or negative effects on the expression of target genes by different mechanisms. The HRE-recruited hormone-receptor-complexes are then able to initiate chromatin remodelling and to relay activating or repressing signals to the target genes transcription machinery; ii through protein—protein interactions with other sequence-specific transcription factors, SHRs can also regulate the activity of many genes that are switched on, for instance, during stress or an inflammatory response; iii the SH response can also be integrated in the intracellular signalling network via cross-talk of SHRs with signal transduction pathways that transmit extracellular signals via membrane receptors and activation of protein kinase cascades to nuclear transcription factors that activate various target genes.
By all these different mechanisms SHRs modulate numerous and specific responses in a large variety of cells, whereby their particular effect depends on the physiological, cellular and genetic context.
Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Sign In or Create an Account. Close mobile search navigation Article navigation. Abstract Steroid hormones SHs are lipophilic molecules derived from cholesterol and synthesized in the adrenal cortex glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and adrenal androgens , the testes testicular androgens, oestrogen , and the ovary and placenta oestrogens and progestagens or progestins.
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In addition to the actual steroid hormone-receptors for steroid hormones, the receptors for thyroid hormones, for vitamin D, and for a number of further. The natural occurrence of the sex steroid hormones progesterone, testosterone, 17β-estradiol and estrone in food was investigated in a survey of the German. of anabolic steroid hormones, and at the same time a relative excess of a relative excess of anti-anabolic hormones apparently does not lead to Osteoporosis.