Formation of Ethyl Butyrate - UI Science
Sie haben zu viele Anfragen gesendet, sodass Linguee Ihren Computer ausgesperrt hat.Application December 23,Serial No. This invention relates to improvements in the production of unsaturated esters and nitriles by the pyrolysis of the esters, amides, or ammonium methyl isobutyrate molecular mass of the hydroxy monocariboxylic aliphatic acids in the presence of ketene. Difiiculties, however, have been experienced in previous processes of this nature. The preparation of a-methyl acrylic acid by the dehydration of a-hydroxyisobutyric acid with P is known. This method, however, has not methyl isobutyrate molecular mass suitable for technical adoption, some of the reasons ,olecular that low yields are obtained and contamination with decomposition products is experienced. The preparation of unsaturated acid esters by the use of acetoxy derivatives in vapor phase dccomposition has been proposed.
Application December 23, , Serial No. This invention relates to improvements in the production of unsaturated esters and nitriles by the pyrolysis of the esters, amides, or ammonium salts of the hydroxy monocariboxylic aliphatic acids in the presence of ketene. Difiiculties, however, have been experienced in previous processes of this nature. The preparation of a-methyl acrylic acid by the dehydration of a-hydroxyisobutyric acid with P is known.
This method, however, has not been suitable for technical adoption, some of the reasons being that low yields are obtained and contamination with decomposition products is experienced. The preparation of unsaturated acid esters by the use of acetoxy derivatives in vapor phase dccomposition has been proposed.
For instance, a-azetoxy methyl propionate has been decomposed: The cost of preparation and purification of the acetoxy derivative has prevented any widespread adoption of this method of preparing unsaturated compounds. Processes have been proposed for preparing unsaturated acids or their derivatives in which a-hydroxymonocarboxylic acids or esters were subjected to the use of ordinary dehydration catalysts.
The application of heat in such a formation of lactides, whizh, on further heating, break down to give an aldehyde or ketone and carbon monoxide. In the case of esters, some ester interchange also occurs. For instance, ethyl lactate gives considerable ethyl lactyl lactate by heating at elevated temperatures. One object of my invention is to prepare 1,5- unsaturated esters or nitriles directly from the corresponding oc-hYdYOXY compounds. Another object of my invention is to provide a method of accomplishing this dehydration by a one-step reaction in the vapor phase in the presence or absence of diluents.
A further object of this invention is to provide a process for making unsaturated compounds in which only inexpensive and readily available raw materials are employed. A still further object of the invention is to provide a process in which the by-products obtained are suitable for use in subsequent reactions. I have found that by subjecting oz-hYdlOXY- monocarboxyli: My invention in its broader aspects comprises the passage of a mixture of the a-hydroxy'compound and ketene in gaseous form through a pyrolysis tube whereby dehydration occurs.
I have found that compounds having the following formula may be employed as the starting material to be dehydrated in accordance with my invention:. My invention is particularly adapted for the dehydration of low molecular weight compounds of the formula stated such as compounds having not more than 8 carbon atoms in a straight chain therein. I have found that unsaturated nitriles may also be obtained by pyrolysis of saturated a-hYdlOXY aliphatic nitriles such as 'u-hydroxy isobutyro nitrile with ketene.
In carrying out the invention other than atmospheric pressures may be used although I have found that the reaction works satisfactorily under ordinary pressure conditions. It is desirable that the temperature in the pyrolysis tube be between and 0. The dehydration is conveniently carried out by passing the a-hYdlOXy compound to be dehydrated through a heated tube together with ketene.
The a-hYdI'OXY compound and the ketene may be in pure condition or there may be other materialspresent or the u-hYdlOXY compound may be made up of a mixture of several materials of this nature. It is often desirable to use ketene which has decomposition gases present therein as it has been found that these gases ordinarily assistin sweeping the pyrolysis chamber.
If desired, diluents may be added to the material passing through the pyrolysis tube. For instance, it is particularly desirable in some cases that acetic anhydride vapors also accompany the vapors of the ketene and the a-hydroxy compound. In many cases the use of an acetic anhydride diluent has suppressed the formation of undesirable by-products and increased the conversion of the a-hydroxy compound to the unsaturated compound on a single passage through the pyrolysis tube.
The pyrolysis tube, in general, takes the term of a vessel of tubular shape provided with means for keeping it at a substantially steady temperature. It is also desirable that the tube be packed with some inert material giving high contact surface such as quartz, pyrex chips, silica gel, carbon rods or the like.
The dimensions of the tube and the rate at which the materials are supplied thereto are dependent upon each other and the length of tube which is most convenient is a question of choice of the individual operator. With a tube of this size the materials have been allowed to run in at the rate of 5 grams per minute. With a longer tube or one in which the gases contact more space in a given amount of time the rate at which the ases are led into the tube may be increased and vice versa.
My process may be carried out continuously by leading the mixture of ketene and oz-hYdI'OXY compound into the heated tube at one end and withdrawing the pyrolysis products at the other.
In addition to the contact surface and free space, the temperature employed in the tube also has an influence on the rate at which the vapors are led through the tube to obtain the best results. If the vapors are led through too fast the temperature is lowered unduly so that the materials to react are not subjected to the required temperature for reaction or if they are, are not at that temperature for the desired time.
The best results in accordance with my process havebeen obtained in a pyrolysis tube in which the ratio of the volume of the contact material to the free space therein is approximately 3 to 1.
The materials employed as the starting material in my process may be characterized as esters, nitriles, amides or ammonium salts of monoor dialkyl glycollic acids. For instance, some of the compounds which may be employed with ketene. The reaction in accordance with my invention I have found to be characteristic of the compounds of this type. It is desirable in the carrying out of my process in most cases that the material which is employed is in concentrated form and free of water.
In addition, it may cut down the rate of conversion of the pyrolysis process even in cases where it is not objectionable. The following examples illustrate my invention:. Example 1 Methyl lactate vapors and ketene in the molar ratio of 1 to 1. One mole of methyl lactate gave 28 grams of methyl acrylate along with some acetaldehyde. Example 2 One mole of methyl lactate and one mole of acetic anhydride were preheated to C. Ketene was passed in at a molar ratio or 1 to 1 of methyl lactate.
The contact time was '1 seconds. Distillation of the product gave 30 grams of methyl acrylate and no low boilers. The residue, upon being repassed, gave 40 grams of methyl acrylate. Ketene was passed in at a molar ratio of 1. The distillation gave 64 grams of methyl acrylate.
The contact time was 4 seconds. Example 4 One mole of lactic amide and one mole of acetic anhydride were heated to gentle boiling and a homogeneous solution was formed.
This solution was preheated at C. The residue was subjected to pyrolysis to get more acrylonitrlle. Example 5 grams of lactic amide-ammonium lactate mixture and grams of acetic anhydride were heated to form a solution. This solution was preheated to C. Distillation of the resulting product gave 2'? Example 6 grams of ammonium lactate-lactic amide and grams of acetic anhydride were heated to form a solution.
This was preheated at C. The ketene was present in a 1 to 1 molar ratio to the amide. The contact time was 6 seconds. The resulting product was distilled and yielded 50 grams of acrylonitrile. Example 7 25 0 grams of ammonium lactate-lactic amide and grams of acetic anhydride were heated to form a solution.
The molar ratio of ketene to amide was 1. The resulting product was distilled and gave 84 grams of acrylonitrlle. Example 8 5 moles of methyl lactate and 10 molesot anhydrous ammonia were autoclaved at C. Excess ammonia and methanol were removed by vacuum distillation.
The amide was dissolved in 5 moles of hot acetic anhydride. The mixture was heated at C. Ketene gas was passed through the pyrolysis chamber in the ratio of 2 to 1 to the amide. The pyrolysis was carried out at C. The pyrolysis chamber was packed with pyrex rings. The product was distilled giving 15 grams of acrylonitrile having a boiling point of 78 C. Example 10 1 mole of lactic amide in molten condition was passed into the pyrolysis chamber and preheated to C.
Ketene was passed through the pyrolysis chamber in the ratio of 4 to 1. Distillation gave 18 grams of acrylonitrile and 70 grams of higher boiling material.
Example 11 grams of a-hydroxyisobutyrnitrile acetone cyanohydrin was dropped through a preheater at a temperature of C. Ketene was then passed through the pyrolysis tube in the ratio of 2 to 1.
The temperature was maintained at C. A method of preparing methyl acrylate which comprises subjecting a mixture of ketene and methyl lactate to pyrolysis at a temperature of to C.
A method of preparing methyl acrylate which comprises subjecting a mixture of ketene and methyl lactate to pyrolysis at a. Van der Burg, Rec. It is known that unsaturated acids may be. I have found that compounds having the following formula may be employed as the starting material to be dehydrated in accordance with my invention: As pointed out above, this is a dehydration operation and the presence of water serves no useful purpose and oftentimes interferes with the obtaining of the best results.
The following examples illustrate my invention: I 1 Example 7 25 0 grams of ammonium lactate-lactic amide and grams of acetic anhydride were heated to form a solution.
A process for producing acrylonitrile by thermal cleavage of acetylated lactonitrile. A process for producing acrylic acid or its alkyl esters of lactic acid or lactates. Production of esters of lactic acid, esters of acrylic acid, lactic acid, and acrylic acid.
Process for producing unsaturated derivatives of alpha-hydroxyisobutyric acid esters. Study of the sequential conversion of citric to itaconic to methacrylic acid in near-critical and supercritical water.
Fatty acid esters | Fisher Scientific
Find Methyl valerate Flavis No and more food-grade flavor ingredients at gaytaboo.xyz Linear Formula CH3(CH2)3CO2CH3 Methyl isovalerate. Boiling Point: to °C. @ mm Hg . Use: ZEPPIN® is highly epimerized Methyl jasmonate, which has about five . ethyl 2-benzyl butyrate. Boiling Point: to °C. @ mm Hg. Boiling Point: to °C. @ mm Hg. Vapor Pressure: .. ethyl butyrate. FL/FR.