KLEAN ESP collect DOP oil for PVC glove production line in RUBBEREX.
PhthalsäureesterÜbersetzung Wörterbuch Rechtschreibprüfung Konjugation Grammatik. Reverso beitreten Registrieren Einloggen Mit Facebook einloggen. Diese Beispiele dioftyl umgangssprachliche Wörter, die auf der Grundlage Ihrer Suchergebnis enthalten. Übersetzung für "phthalate plasticizer" im Deutsch. Suche phthalate plasticizer in:
Übersetzung für "phthalate plasticizer" im Deutsch
Auch die Salze der Phthalsäure werden Phthalate genannt. Dimethyl- , Diethyl- oder Dibutylphthalat kommen auch als Bestandteil von Kosmetik oder Körperpflegemitteln und pharmazeutischen Produkten zum Einsatz.
Im Jahr wurde der Markt noch von Weichmachern auf Phthalat-Basis dominiert, gesetzliche Bestimmungen und steigendes Umweltbewusstsein erzwingen jedoch immer öfter den Einsatz phthalatfreier Weichmacher. Die zuverlässige qualitative und quantitative Bestimmung der Phthalsäureester gelingt nach adäquater Probenvorbereitung in verschiedenen Untersuchungsmaterialien durch die Kopplung der Gaschromatographie mit der Massenspektrometrie.
Niedermolekulare Phthalate sind gesundheitlich problematische Verbindungen, da sie im Verdacht stehen, wie Hormone zu wirken und beispielsweise Unfruchtbarkeit, Übergewicht und Diabetes beim Mann  hervorzurufen.
Bei den in Medikamenten verwendeten Phthalaten gibt es bisher keine Hinweise auf eine Schädigung im Menschen, trotzdem schlägt die EMA eine Beschränkung des Einsatzes vor, da tierexperimentelle Studien auf Schädigungen durch ausreichende Dosen hinweisen.
In neueren epidemiologischen Studien werden die im Abschnitt Toxikologie erwähnten Forschungsergebnisse teilweise bestätigt    und Hinweise auf künftige Forschungsschwerpunkte gegeben. Zudem wird im Film Plastic Planet auf die globale Verbreitung von Plastik im Allgemeinen und diverse Gesundheitsgefahren der darin enthaltenen Weichmacher im Besonderen hingewiesen.
In den meisten Standardkunststoffen, wie z. Juli auf ein Verbot von Phthalaten, die weithin als Beimischung für Kunststoffe verwendet werden. Deren Eigenschaften sind meist sehr ähnlich. Selbst in der Fachliteratur finden sich gelegentlich unpräzise Zuordnungen. Nicht enthalten in der obigen Liste sind Polymere , z. Ester — In chemistry, esters are chemical compounds derived from an acid in which at least one —OH group is replaced by an —O—alkyl group.
Usually, esters are derived from an acid and an alcohol. Glycerides, which are fatty acid esters of glycerol, are important esters in biology, being one of the classes of lipids. Esters with low weight are commonly used as fragrances and found in essential oils.
Phosphoesters form the backbone of DNA molecules, nitrate esters, such as nitroglycerin, are known for their explosive properties, while polyesters are important plastics, with monomers linked by ester moieties.
The word ester was coined in by German chemist Leopold Gmelin, probably as a contraction of the German Essigäther, ester names are derived from the parent alcohol and the parent acid, where the latter may be organic or inorganic.
Esters derived from more complex carboxylic acids are, on the hand, more frequently named using the systematic IUPAC name. An uncommon class of organic esters are the orthoesters, which have the formula RC3, triethylorthoformate is derived, in terms of its name from orthoformic acid and ethanol.
Esters can also be derived from an acid and an alcohol. For example, triphenyl phosphate is the derived from phosphoric acid. Organic carbonates are derived from acid, for example, ethylene carbonate is derived from carbonic acid. So far an alcohol and inorganic acid are linked via oxygen atoms, in corollary, boron features borinic esters, boronic esters, and borates.
Unlike amides, esters are structurally flexible functional groups because rotation about the C—O—C bonds has a low barrier and their flexibility and low polarity is manifested in their physical properties, they tend to be less rigid and more volatile than the corresponding amides. The pKa of the alpha-hydrogens on esters is around 25, the preference for the Z conformation is influenced by the nature of the substituents and solvent, if present.
Phthalsäure — Phthalic acid is an aromatic dicarboxylic acid, with formula C6H It is an isomer of isophthalic acid and terephthalic acid, although phthalic acid is of modest commercial importance, the closely related derivative phthalic anhydride is a commodity chemical produced on a large scale.
Phthalic acid is produced by the oxidation of naphthalene or ortho-xylene directly to phthalic anhydride. Phthalic acid was first obtained by French chemist Auguste Laurent in by oxidizing naphthalene tetrachloride, believing the resulting substance to be a naphthalene derivative, he named it naphthalic acid.
After the Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac determined its correct formula and it is a dibasic acid, with pKas of 2. The monopotassium salt, potassium hydrogen phthalate is an acid in analytical chemistry. Typically phthalate esters are prepared from the widely available phthalic anhydride, reduction of phthalic acid with sodium amalgam in the presence of water gives the 1, 3-cyclohexadiene derivative.
Phthalic acid is one of three isomers of benzenedicarboxylic acid, the others being isophthalic acid and terephthalic acid, sometimes the term phthalic acids is used to refer to this family of isomers, but in the singular, phthalic acid, refers exclusively to the ortho- isomer.
Alkohole — In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group is bound to a saturated carbon atom. The term alcohol originally referred to the alcohol ethanol, the predominant alcohol in alcoholic beverages. The suffix -ol in non-systematic names also typically indicates that the substance includes a functional group and, so. The word alcohol is from the Arabic kohl, a used as an eyeliner. Al- is the Arabic definite article, equivalent to the in English, alcohol was originally used for the very fine powder produced by the sublimation of the natural mineral stibnite to form antimony trisulfide Sb 2S3, hence the essence or spirit of this substance.
It was used as an antiseptic, eyeliner, and cosmetic, the meaning of alcohol was extended to distilled substances in general, and then narrowed to ethanol, when spirits as a synonym for hard liquor. Bartholomew Traheron, in his translation of John of Vigo, Vigo wrote, the barbarous auctours use alcohol, or alcofoll, for moost fine poudre.
The Lexicon Chymicum, by William Johnson glosses the word as antimonium sive stibium, by extension, the word came to refer to any fluid obtained by distillation, including alcohol of wine, the distilled essence of wine.
The words meaning became restricted to spirit of wine in the 18th century and was extended to the class of substances so-called as alcohols in modern chemistry after , the term ethanol was invented , based on combining the word ethane with ol the last part of alcohol. In the IUPAC system, in naming simple alcohols, the name of the alkane chain loses the terminal e and adds ol, e. If a higher priority group is present, then the prefix hydroxy is used, in other less formal contexts, an alcohol is often called with the name of the corresponding alkyl group followed by the word alcohol, e.
Propyl alcohol may be n-propyl alcohol or isopropyl alcohol, depending on whether the group is bonded to the end or middle carbon on the straight propane chain. As described under systematic naming, if another group on the molecule takes priority, Alcohols are then classified into primary, secondary, and tertiary, based upon the number of carbon atoms connected to the carbon atom that bears the hydroxyl functional group. Salze — In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that results from the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
Salts are composed of related numbers of cations and anions so that the product is electrically neutral and these component ions can be inorganic, such as chloride, or organic, such as acetate, and can be monatomic, such as fluoride, or polyatomic, such as sulfate. There are several varieties of salts, salts that hydrolyze to produce hydroxide ions when dissolved in water are alkali salts, whilst those that hydrolyze to produce hydronium ions in water are acidic salts.
Neutral salts are those salts that are neither acidic nor basic, zwitterions contain an anionic centre and a cationic centre in the same molecule, but are not considered to be salts. Examples of zwitterions include amino acids, many metabolites, peptides, usually, non-dissolved salts at standard conditions for temperature and pressure are solid, but there are exceptions. Molten salts and solutions containing dissolved salts are called electrolytes, as they are able to conduct electricity.
As observed in the cytoplasm of cells, in blood, urine, plant saps and mineral waters, therefore, their salt content is given for the respective ions. Salts can appear to be clear and transparent, opaque, and even metallic, in many cases, the apparent opacity or transparency are only related to the difference in size of the individual monocrystals.
Since light reflects from the boundaries, larger crystals tend to be transparent. The color of the salt is due to the electronic structure in the d-orbitals of transition elements or in the conjugated organic dye framework. Different salts can elicit all five basic tastes, e. Salts of strong acids and strong bases are non-volatile and odorless and that slow, partial decomposition is usually accelerated by the presence of water, since hydrolysis is the other half of the reversible reaction equation of formation of weak salts.
Many ionic compounds can be dissolved in water or other similar solvents, the exact combination of ions involved makes each compound have a unique solubility in any solvent. The solubility is dependent on how well each ion interacts with the solvent, for example, all salts of sodium, potassium and ammonium are soluble in water, as are all nitrates and many sulfates — barium sulfate, calcium sulfate and lead sulfate are examples of exceptions.
However, ions that bind tightly to each other and form highly stable lattices are less soluble, for example, most carbonate salts are not soluble in water, such as lead carbonate and barium carbonate.
Some soluble carbonate salts are, sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate, solid salts do not conduct electricity. Moreover, solutions of salts also conduct electricity, the name of a salt starts with the name of the cation followed by the name of the anion. Salts are often referred to only by the name of the cation or by the name of the anion. Weichmacher — Plasticizers or dispersants are additives that increase the plasticity or viscosity of a material.
Over the last 60 years more than 30, different substances have been evaluated for their plasticizing properties, of these, only a small number — approximately 50 - are today in commercial use. The dominant applications are for plastics, especially polyvinyl chloride, the properties of other materials are also improved when blended with plasticizers including concrete, clays, and related products. According to data, the global market for plasticizers was 8.
The majority is used in films and cables, for plastics such as PVC, the more plasticizer added, the lower their cold flex temperature will be. Plastic items containing plasticizers exhibit improved flexibility and durability, plasticizers can become available for exposure due to migration and abrasion of the plastic since they are not bound to the polymer matrix.
The new car smell is often attributed to plasticizers or their degradation products, however, multiple studies on the makeup of the smell do not find phthalates in appreciable amounts, likely due to their extremely low volatility and vapor pressure. Plasticizers make it possible to achieve improved compound processing characteristics, while providing flexibility in the end-use product. Ester plasticizers are selected based upon cost-performance evaluation, the rubber compounder must evaluate ester plasticizers for compatibility, processibility, permanence and other performance properties.
The wide variety of ester chemistries that are in production include sebacates, adipates, terephthalates, dibenzoates, gluterates, phthalates, azelates, low to high polarity esters provide utility in a wide range of elastomers including nitrile, polychloroprene, EPDM, chlorinated polyethylene, and epichlorohydrin.
Plasticizer-elastomer interaction is governed by many such as solubility parameter, molecular weight. Compatibility and performance attributes are key factors in developing a formulation for a particular application. Plasticizers also function as softeners, extenders, and lubricants, antiplasticizers exhibit similar, but sometimes opposite, effects as plasticizers on polymer systems.
The effect of plasticizers on modulus is dependent on temperature and plasticizer concentration. Below a certain concentration, referred to as the crossover concentration, the materials glass transition temperature will decrease however, at all concentrations.
In addition to a crossover concentration a crossover temperature exists, below the crossover temperature the plasticizer will also increase the modulus. Antiplasticizers can be defined as any small molecule or oligomer additive which increases the modulus while decreasing the glass transition temperature, plasticizers used in PVC and other plastics are often based on esters of polycarboxylic acids with linear or branched aliphatic alcohols of moderate chain length.
Kunststoff — Plastic is a material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and can be molded into solid objects.
Plastics are typically organic polymers of high mass, but they often contain other substances. They are usually synthetic, most commonly derived from petrochemicals, due to their relatively low cost, ease of manufacture, versatility, and imperviousness to water, plastics are used in an enormous and expanding range of products, from paper clips to spaceships. They have already displaced many traditional materials, such as wood, stone, horn and bone, leather, paper, metal, glass, and ceramic, in most of their former uses.
In developed countries, about a third of plastic is used in packaging, other uses include automobiles, furniture, and toys.
In the developing world, the ratios may be different - for example, the worlds first fully synthetic plastic was bakelite, invented in New York in by Leo Baekeland who coined the term plastics. The common word plastic should not be confused with the technical adjective plastic, used for insulating parts in electrical fixtures, paper laminated products, thermally insulation foams. Problems include the probability of moldings naturally being dark colors, One of the most expensive commercial polymers.
It forms the basis of artistic and commercial acrylic paints when suspended in water with the use of other agents, polytetrafluoroethylene — Heat-resistant, low-friction coatings, used in things like non-stick surfaces for frying pans, plumbers tape and water slides.
It is more known as Teflon. Urea-formaldehyde — One of the aminoplasts and used as an alternative to phenolics. Used as an adhesive and electrical switch housings. Early plastics were bio-derived materials such as egg and blood proteins, in BC, Mesoamericans used natural rubber for balls, bands, and figurines.
Treated cattle horns were used as windows for lanterns in the Middle Ages, materials that mimicked the properties of horns were developed by treating milk-proteins with lye. In the s, as industrial chemistry developed during the Industrial Revolution, the development of plastics also accelerated with Charles Goodyears discovery of vulcanization to thermoset materials derived from natural rubber. Parkesine is considered the first man-made plastic, the plastic material was patented by Alexander Parkes, In Birmingham, UK in
Oxblue Archive - Chemistry News
or when the high degree of ordering is built up in the process of polymerization [ 34]. 0. 30 yo transition of PVC on the dioctyl phthalate content in dielectric depend on the composition and method of production. The structure study. Übersetzung im Kontext von „phthalate plasticizer“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Process according to Claim 3, characterized in that the plasticizer used is a Global production of metaxylene is limited to few manufacturers and in that the coating (13) containing permethrin also contains dioctyl phthalate as an. The Production Method of Urea-formaldehyde Resin with Low Formaldehyde Esterification reaction process for plasticizer DOTP (dioctyl terephthalate).