Which of the following is true?
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Org 2 UE4 - Tutorial 2015/16 Gary Midgley
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Hol dir deine Tage-Testversion Du hast bereits einen Account? Physical Change - A change that does not affect the chemical makeup of a substance or object. Chemical Change - A change in the chemical makeup of a substance. Gas Classification of matter: Pure substances - A substance that has a uniform chemical composition throughout. A pure substance cannot be physically separated into simpler pure components.
Mixture - A blend of two or more substances, each of which retains its chemical identity. Solutions and mixtures can be physically separated into simpler pure components. Homogeneous substances and mixtures consist of only one phase gas, liquid, solid. Heterogeneous substances and mixtures consist of more than one phase gas, liquid, solid. Metalloids - Properties are intermediate between metals and nonmetals. Mass is the measure of the amount of matter in an object.
Weight is the measure of the gravitational pull that is exerted on an object. Protons and neutrons have essentially the same weight whereas the electron weighs so little that its mass is usually ignored.
Protons carry a pos. Like charges repel each other and oppositely charged particles are attracted to each other. Although all atoms of a given element has the same number of protons, they can sometimes have a different number of neutrons thus resulting in a different atomic mass and creating isotopes of the element. All react violently with water. All are found in nature only in combination with other elements e.
NaCl 4 Noble gases — Group 8A; colourless gases and low or no chemical reactivity. The further a shell is from the nucleus, the larger it is, the more electrons it can hold and the higher the energies of those electrons. The number of sub-shells in a shell corresponds to the shell number e. However, from orbital 3p they start crossing over with the orbitals in the next shell. The subshell that is filled last called valence shell e. Covalent bonds occur between two non-metals e.
The group number in the periodic table can be used to determine the number of covalent bonds for each element. HCl Non-polar bond — bond shared by diatomic atoms e. H2 Electronegativity — the ability of an atom to attract electrons in a covalent bond; Fluorine has the highest electronegativity 4.
Precipitation reactions — reaction between 2 aqueous compounds, forming a precipitate solid. Acid-Base Neutralisation — reaction between an acid and a base, forming H 20 and a salt.
Acid-Carbonate neutralisation — reaction between an acid and a carbonate, forming H 20, CO2 and a salt. Redox reactions — reaction which cause a change in oxidation states key: Atoms in its elemental state will have an oxidation number of 0 e. Monoatomic ions will have an oxidation number equal to its charge e. All oxidation numbers in a compound must add up to 0 e. Charges of polyatomic ions equal to its oxidation state e.
Important oxidation states of ions to remember: Oxidation — loss of electrons 2. Reduction — gain of electrons 3. Bond dissociation — the measure of the strength of a covalent bond, defined as the amount of energy needed to break the bond and separate the atoms in an isolated gaseous molecule.
The greater the bond dissociation energy the more stable the chemical bond between the atoms or ions. The more bonds shared by a molecule the more dissociation energy required to separate it. Endothermic — A chemical change that absorbs heat from the surroundings. Spontaneous reactions are exergonic; free energy is released. Most exothermic reactions are spontaneous. Non-spontaneous — a process which requires continuous external influence. Non-spontaneous reactions are endergonic; free energy is added.
Most endothermic reactions are non-spontaneous. Decreases as the number of moles decrease. Temperature — increase in temperature increases rate of reaction, decrease in temperature decreases rate.
Concentration — increase in reactant concentration increase rate, decrease in reactant concentration decreases rate. Temperature — increase in temperature favours endothermic reaction, decrease in temperature favours exothermic reaction. Osmosis occurs when a solution is seperated from a pure solvent by a semi-permeable membrane. The higher the concentration of the solute, the higher the boiling point of the solvent.
Neither — not a base or acid, i. Ca Types of acid: HCl or HNO3 2. H3PO4 How to recognise an acid or a base compound:
V-8 Thermische Verfahrenstechnik
Org 2 UE4 - Tutorial /16 Gary Midgley - SIC Organic Chemistry 2 - StuDocu
The two anomeric 1-(2′-deoxy-D-ribofuranosyl)-2(1H)-pyridones 6 and 7 D- glucose, D-digitoxose and n-oleandrose were oxidized with bromine water to. The benzylidene derivatives of D-xylose, D-arabinose, D-glucose, D-galactose, and . Bromine water oxidises o- and m-tolyl- and m-bromophenyl-osazones to. Planar yeast estrogen screen with resorufin-β-D-galactopyranoside as substrate As environmental samples like waste water also contain blue fluorescent Effect of bromine oxidation on high-performance thin-layer chromatography the reaction of [C]D-glucose with lysine and aminoguanidine leads to the.